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                          高考英語試題中定語從句與強調句陷阱題詳解

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                          1. The factory was built in a secret place, around _________ high mountains.

                            A. which was B. it was C. which were D. them were

                            【陷阱】容易誤選A或B,將A、B中的 which 和 it 誤認為是其后句子的主語。

                            【分析】最佳答案是C,around which were high mountains 是一個由介 which引出的非限制性定語從句,而在該從句中,主語是 high mountains,around which 是表語,所以句子謂語應用復數were,而不是用單數 was。請做以下類例題目(答案均為C):

                           。1) Yesterday we visited a modern hospital, around _________ some fruit shops.

                            A. which is B. it is C. which are D. them are

                           。2) The murder happened in an old building, beside _________ the city police station.

                            A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

                           。3) Next month well move to a new building, next to _________ a nice restaurants where we can have Chinese food.

                            A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

                            2. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, Is there a hospital around _________ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand

                            A. that B. which C. where D. what

                            【陷阱】容易誤選 B,認為 around 是介詞,選 which 用以代替前面的名詞 hospital,在此用作介詞 around 的賓語。

                            【分析】最佳答案為C。以上語法 分析并不算錯,但問題是,照此分析,此句的意思即為:有沒有這樣一個醫院,我在它的附近可以買藥治我的手傷?這樣的語境顯然有點不合情理,因為人們通常是在醫院里面治傷,而不是在醫院附近治傷。此題選 C 的理由是:句中的 around 不是介詞,而是副詞,意為在附近;其后的 where 引導定語從句用以修飾其前的地點名詞 hospital,句意為:附近有沒有一家醫院,我可以去治我的手傷?

                            3. David is such a good boy _________ all the teachers like.

                            A. that B. who C. as D. whom

                            【陷阱】此題容易誤選A,許多同學一看到題干中的such,再聯系到選項中的 that,便認為這是考查such that 句式。況且,這樣理解意思也還通順。

                            【分析】最佳答案為C,不是A,因為在such that (如此以至)結構中,that 引導的是結果狀語從句,并且 that 在從句中不充當句子成分,若在上句填入 such that ,句末的動詞 like 缺賓語。選C的理由如下:as 用作關系代詞,用以引導定語從句,修飾其前的名詞 boy,同時 as 在定語從句中用作動詞 like 的賓語,句意為所有老師都喜歡的一位好男孩。有的同學可能還會問,假若選A,能否將其后的 that 視為引導定語從句的關系代詞呢?不能,因為當先行詞受到 such 的修飾時,其后的定語從句應用關系代詞 as 來引導,而不用that。比較下面一題,答案為A,因為 like 后有自己的賓語 him:

                            David is such a good boy _________ all the teachers like him.

                            A. that B. who C. as D. whom

                            請再做以下試題(答案選D):

                            It was not such a good dinner _________ she had promised us.

                            A. like B. that C. which D. as

                            4. The buses, most of _________ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.

                            A. that B. it C. them D. which

                            【陷阱】容易誤選 C,用 them 代指 the buses。

                            【分析】最佳答案是D。most of which were already full 為非限制性定語從句,修飾 the buses。類似地,以下各題也選D:

                           。1) His house, for _________ he paid $10, 000, is now worth $50, 000.

                            A. that B. it C. them D. which

                           。2) Ashdown forest, through _________ well be driving, isnt a forest any longer.

                            A. that B. it C. them D. which

                           。3) This I did at nine oclock, after _________ I sat reading the paper.

                            A. that B. it C. them D. which

                            類似地,以下各題選 whom,不選 them:

                           。4) George, with _________ I played tennis on Sundays, was a warm-hearted person.

                            A. that B. him C. them D. whom

                           。5) Her sons, both of _________ work abroad, will come back home this summer.

                            A. that B. who C. them D. whom

                           。6) I met the fruit-pickers, several of _________ were still university students.

                            A. that B. who C. them D. whom

                            5. He had a lot of friends, only a few of _________ invited to his wedding.

                            A. whom B. them C. which D. who

                            【陷阱】容易誤選 A,認為這是非限制性定語從句。

                            【分析】最佳答案是B,這不是非限制性定語從句,而是一個獨立主格結構,因為空格后的動詞 invited 并不是一個完整的謂語,而是一個過去分詞。當然,假若在 invited 前加上助動詞 were,則是一個非限制性定語從句,答案便應選A。比較:

                           。1) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ carried out in their work.

                            A. which B. them C. what D. that

                            答案選B,none of them carried out in their work 是獨立主格結構,其中的 carried out 為過去分詞

                           。2) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ were carried out in their work.

                            A. which B. them C. what D. that

                            答案選A,none of them were carried out in their work 是非限制性定語從句,注意與上例比較句中多了一個助動詞were。

                           。3) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _________ were carried out in their work.

                            A. which B. them C. what D. that

                            答案選B,由于兩句之間增加了一個并列連詞but,使得該句成了一個并列句。

                            6. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents seated together joking.

                            A. their B. whose C. which D. that

                            【陷阱】容易誤選B,認為這是非限制性定語從句。

                            【分析】最佳答案是A。與上面一題相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定語從句,而是一個獨立主格結構,因為空格后的動詞 seated 不是謂語,而是一個過去分詞,因為 seat 作動詞用時,是及物動詞。比較以下相似題:

                           。1) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were seated together joking.

                            A. their B. whose C. which D. that

                            選B。whose parents were seated together joking 為非限制性定語從句,因為其后有完整的謂語 were seated。

                           。2) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, and _________ parents were seated together joking.

                            A. their B. whose C. which D. that

                            選A。因為句中有并列連詞and,整個句子為并列句。

                           。3) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sitting together joking.

                            A. their B. whose C. which D. that

                            選A。their parents sitting together joking 為獨立主格結構。

                           。4) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sat together joking.

                            A. their B. whose C. which D. that

                            選B。whose parents sat together joking 為非限制性定語從句,因為句中有完整的謂語 sat。

                           。5) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were sitting together joking.

                            A. their B. whose C. which D. that

                            選B。whose parents were sitting together joking 為非限制性定語從句,因為句中有完整的謂語 were sitting。

                            7. If the man is only interested in your looks, _________ just shows how shallow he is.

                            A. as B. which C. what D. that

                            【陷阱】容易誤選A或B,誤這是非限制性定語從句。

                            【分析】正確答案為D,注意逗號前是一個條件狀語從句,逗號后是該狀語從句的主句,that 在此代表前文所述的情況,用作主句的主語。類似地,下面幾道題也選 that,而不選 which:

                           。1) If you promise to go with us, _________ will be OK.

                            A. as B. which C. and it D. that

                           。2) If you want a double room, _________ will cost another £15.

                            A. as B. which C. what D. that

                           。3) Whether you go or not, _________ is quite all right with me.

                            A. that B. which C. and it D. so

                           。4) When I say two hours, _________ includes time for eating.

                            A. as B. which C. what D. that

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