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                          2011年中考英語復習四:數詞、冠詞考點講解和訓練

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                          【考點直擊】

                            1.不定冠詞a與an的用法

                            2.定冠詞the的用法

                            3.零冠詞

                            4.基數詞的用法

                            5.序數詞的用法

                            【名師點睛】

                            一. 冠詞的用法

                            冠詞是虛詞,放在名詞之前,用來說明名詞指的人或事物。冠詞有兩種。

                            A(an)叫不定冠詞,the叫定冠詞。A用在輔音之前,an用在元音之前。

                            1. 不定冠詞的用法

                           。1) a和an均用在單數名詞之前,表示某一類人或事物。例如:

                            John is a student.

                            Mary is an English teacher.

                           。2) 指某一類人或事物中的任何一個。例如:

                            A steel worker makes steel.

                            Pass me an apple, please.

                           。3) 指某人或某物,但不具體說明何人或和物。例如:

                            A student wants to see you.

                            A girl is waiting for you outside.

                           。4) 表示每一的意思,相當于every。例如:

                            Take the medicine three times a day.

                            They go to see their parents once a week.

                            2. 定冠詞用法

                           。1) 特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如:

                            The book on the desk is an English dictionary.

                            Beijing is the capital of China.

                           。2) 指說話人和聽話人都熟悉的人或事物。例如:

                            Open the door, please.

                            Jack is in the library.

                           。3) 上文提到過的人或事物。例如:

                            Yesterday Johns father bought him a new bike. The bike cost him 200 yuan.

                           。4) 表示世界上獨一無二的事物。例如:

                            The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

                           。5) 用在序數詞和形容詞最高級之前。例如:

                            Shanghai is the biggest city in China.

                            January is the first month of the year.

                           。6) 用在某些形容詞之前,表示某一類人或事物。例如:

                            The nurse is kind to the sick.

                            We should take good care of the old.

                           。7) 用在某些專有名詞之前和某些習慣用語中。例如:

                            the Great Wall, the Summer palace, in the morning, in the open air等。

                           。8) 用在姓氏復數之前,表示某某一家人,某某夫婦。例如:

                            the Browns, the whites等。

                            3. 不用冠詞的情況

                           。1) 某些專有名詞,抽象名詞和物質名詞前一般不用冠詞。例如:

                            China, Canada, Japanese, glass, water, love等。

                           。2) 名詞前已有作定語用的this, that, my, your, whose, some, any, no, each, every等代詞時,不用冠詞。例如:

                            That is my cap.

                            I have some questions.

                            Go down this street.

                           。3) 復數名詞表示一類人或事物時,不用冠詞。

                            They are workers.

                            We are students.

                           。4) 稱呼語前不用冠詞,表示頭銜和職務的名詞前也不加冠詞。例如:

                            I dont feel well today, Mother.

                            Bush was made president of the U.S.

                           。5) 三餐飯的名稱前,球類活動,學科和節目名詞前,常不用冠詞。例如:

                            I have lunch at home.

                            He often plays football after class.

                            We have English and maths every day.

                           。6) 在某些固定詞組里,名詞之前常不用冠詞。例如:

                            By air, at night, at home, go to bed, go to school, on foot, from morning till night 等。

                            二. 數詞的用法

                            數詞分基數詞和序數詞;鶖翟~表示數目,序數詞表示順序。

                            1. 基數詞的用法

                           。1) 基數詞在句中主要用作主語、賓語、定語、表語、同位語,例如:

                            Thirty of them are Party members.(主語)

                            --- How many would you like?

                            --- Three ,please.(作賓語)

                            The nine boys are from Tianjing.(定語)

                            Six plus four is ten.(表語)

                            We four will go with you.(同位語)

                           。2) 表示一個具體數字時,hundred, thousand, million一律不用復數;在表示一個不確定數字時則用復數。例如:

                            Our country has a population of 1,300 million people.

                            There are three thousand students in our school.

                            After the war, thousands of people became homeless.

                            Maize is the most important food crop for millions of people in the world.

                            They arrived in twos and threes.

                           。3) 表示十的數詞的復數形式可用來表示人的歲數或年代,例如:

                            He is in his early thirties.

                            He died still in his forties.

                            This took place in 1930s.

                           。4) 表示時刻用基數詞。例如:

                            We get up at six.

                            The workers begin work at eight.

                            表示幾點過幾分,用介詞past,但須在半小時以內。例如:

                            ten past ten,

                            a quarter past nine,

                            half past twelve

                            表示幾點差幾分用介詞to, 但分數須在半小時以上。例如:

                            twenty to nine,

                            five to eight,

                            a quarter to ten

                            表示幾點幾分還可直接用基數詞。例如:

                            seven fifteen,

                            eleven thirty,

                            nine twenty

                            2. 序數詞的用法

                           。1)序數詞主要用作定語,前面要加定冠詞,例如:

                            The first truck is carrying a foot baskets.

                            John lives on the fifteenth floor.

                           。2)序數詞有時前面可加不定冠詞來表示再一,又一這樣的意思,例如:

                            We"ll have to do it a second time.

                            Shall I ask him a third time?

                            When I sat down,a fourth man rose to speak.

                           。3)由幾個序數詞和基數詞在拼寫時不對應,很容易寫錯,應特別注意。它們是:one---first, two---second, three---third, five---fifth, eight---eighth, nine---ninth, twelve---twelfth。

                           。4)表示年,月,日時, 年用基數詞表示,日用序數詞表示。例如:

                            1949年十月一日讀作: October (the) first, nineteen sixty

                            2004年九月十日讀作:September (the) tenth, two thousand and four

                           。5)表示分數時,分子用基數詞表示,分母用序數詞表示。分子大于1時,分母加-s。例如:

                            three fourths,

                            one second,

                            two fifths

                           。6)序數詞有時用縮寫形式:

                            first1st second2nd

                            third3rd fourth4th

                            twenty-second22nd

                            【實例解析】

                            1. (2004年上海市徐匯區中考試題

                            About ________ students in our class can describe that place in English.

                            A. three-fifths B. three-fifth C. third-five D. third-fifths

                            答案:A。該題考查的是分數的表示法。分子用基數詞表示,分母用序數詞表示。分子大于1時,分母應加-s,因此應選A。

                            2. (2004年河北省中考試題)

                            Nine _______ pounds a week? Thats very good.

                            A. hundred of B. hundreds of

                            C. hundreds D. hundred

                            答案:D。該題考查的是數詞的用法。Nine hundred是一個具體的數量,這是數詞不能用復數形式,后面也不能加of。所以應選D。

                            3. (2004年北京市海淀區中考試題)

                            We often have sports after class, and I like to play _______ basketball.

                            A. a B. an C. the D. 不填

                            答案:D。該題考查的是冠詞的用法。球類運動之前不加冠詞,因此應選D。

                            4. (2004年江西省中考試題)

                            This is _______ song Ive told you about. Isnt it _______ beautiful one?

                            A. the; the B. a; a C. the; a D. a; the

                            答案:C。該題考查的是冠詞的用法。第一個空是特指,特指我給你說過的那首歌,第二個空是表示某一個類別。所以應選C。

                            【中考演練】

                            一.單項填空

                            1. This morning I had ________ egg and a bottle of milk for my breakfast.

                            A. an B. a C. the D./

                            2. ---Whats the matter with you?

                            ---I caught ________ bad cold and had to stay in ________.

                            A. a;/ B. a; the C. a; a D. the; the

                            3. ---Have you seen _______ pen? I left it here this morning.

                            ---Is it ________ black one? I think I saw it somewhere.

                            A. a; the B. the; the C. the; a D. a; a

                            4. _______ sun is shining brightly.

                            A. A B. An C. The D. /

                            5. There is _______ h in the word hour.

                            A. a B. the C. an D./

                            6. Did you enjoy your stay in Xian?

                            Yes. I had _______ wonderful time.

                            A. a B. an C. the D. /

                            7. ______ sun is bigger than _______ earth.

                            A. A; the B. A; an C. The; an D. The; the

                            8. There is _______ apple and some pears on the table.

                            A. the B./ C. a D. an

                            9. David has _______ cat. Its very nice.

                            A. a B. an C. the D./

                            10. Im reading _______ novel. It is _______ interesting story.

                            A. a; an B. a; a C. the; the D. /; an

                            11. It is said that SARS has killed more than ________ people worldwide.

                            A. three hundreds B. three hundreds

                            C. three hundreds D. three hundred

                            12. ---How many workers are there in your factory?

                            ---There are two __________.

                            A. hundreds B. hundred C. hundred of D. hundreds of

                            13. ---Which is the smallest number of the four?

                            ---_______________.

                            A. Two-thirds B. A half C. A quarter D. Three-fourths

                            14. ---What do you think of a war, Li Ming?

                            ---Ive no idea. But its a fact that _______ people had to leave their hometown during the War on Iraq.

                            A. three thousands B. thousand of

                            C. thousands of D. several thousands

                            15. We all think that the _______ century will bring us more hopes.

                            A. twenty-first B. twentieth-first

                            C. twenty-one D. twentieth-one

                            16. ---Can you write the number eighty-five thousand, six hundred and twenty-six?

                            ---Yes, it is __________.

                            A. 856620 B. 85626 C. 58662 D. 58626

                            17. When was the PRC founded? It was founded on _________.

                            A. July 1, 1921 B. October 1, 1949

                            C. August 1, 1927 D. May 1, 1922

                            18. I was 8 years old when my father was 31. This year my father is twice my age. How old am I?

                            A. 21 B. 22 C. 23 D. 24

                            19. _______ Chinese are looking for ways to learn English well before Beijing 2008 Olympics.

                            A. Thousand B. Thousands C. Thousand of D. Thousands of

                            20. Both of the two rulers are broken. I want to buy a _______one.

                            A. three B. third C. forth D. /

                            二. 句子改錯:下面各句A, B, C, D中有一處錯誤,請指出并改正。

                            1. May is a fifth month of the year.

                            A B C D

                            2. The film has been on for half a hour.

                            A B C D

                            3. The boys and the girls often play the foot ball in the afternoon.

                            A B C D

                            4. It looks rain. Why not take a umbrella with you?

                            A B C D

                            5. Li Mei often gives us some good information by the e-meil.

                            A B C D

                            6. Weve planted two hundreds trees in the centre of our city this year.

                            A B C D

                            7. Five million of dollars is a lot of money.

                            A B C D

                            8. There are thousand of children in the park now.

                            A B C D

                            9. By the end of twenty century, the world population had passed six billion.

                            A B C D

                            10. Over three fifth of the worlds books and newspapers are written in English.

                            A B C D

                            【練習答案】

                            一. 1.A 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.D 9.A 10.A11.D 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.B

                            二. 1.B athe 2.D aan 3.C 去掉the 4.C aan 5.D去掉the 6.B two hundredstwo hundred 7.B 去掉of 8.B thousandthousands 9.B twentytwentieth 10.A three fifththree fifths

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