學生階段

                          從零開始學語法:特殊同位語歸納

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                          • 發布時間:2015-03-14 09:53:01
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                          特殊同位語歸納

                          當兩個 或詞組在一個句子中具有相同的語法 地位而且描述相同的人或事物時,我們稱它們為同位語;拘问降耐徽Z大家一般不會出錯,但有幾種同位語,或由于身本結構特殊,或由于它修飾的成分結構比較特殊,往往會引起誤解,F小結并舉例說明如下,希望引起同學們的注意。

                          1. 代詞we, us, you等后接同位語

                          Are you two reading? 你們二人在看書嗎?

                          They three joined the school team. 他們3人參加了校隊。

                          She has great concern for us students. 她對我們學生很關心。

                          He asked you boys to be quiet. 他要你們男孩子安靜些。

                          We girls often go to the movies together. 我們女孩子經常一起去看電影。

                          2. 不定式用作同位語

                          Soon came the order to start the general attack. 很快下達了發起總攻的命令。(to start the general attack與the order同位)

                          He followed the instruction to walk along a certain street where I picked him up. 他照吩咐沿某一條街走,我在那里接他上了車。(to walk along與the instruction同位)

                          3. -ing分詞用作同位語

                          He"s getting a job tonight driving a truck. 他今晚得到一個開卡車的差事。(driving a track與a job同位)

                          She got a place in a laundry ironing shirts. 她在一家洗衣店得到一個熨衣服的職位。(ironing shirts與a place同位)

                          The first plan, attacking at night, was turned down. 第一個計劃是夜襲,被拒絕了。(attacking at night與the first plan同位)

                          4. 形容詞用作同位語

                          The current affair, the biggest in its history, is being held in Guangzhou. 目前的交易會,是有史以來規模最大的,正在廣州舉行。

                          He read all kinds of books, ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign. 他讀了很多書,古今中外都有。

                          People, old and young, took to the streets to watch the parade. 老老少少的人都來到街頭觀看游行。

                          【注】這類同位語與定語比較接近,可轉換成定語從句。如:

                          The current affair, the biggest in its history, is being held in Guangzhou.

                          =The current affair, which is the biggest in its history, is being held in Guangzhou.

                          5. none of us之類的結構用作同位語

                          We none of us said anything. 我們誰也沒說話。

                          We have none of us large appetites. 我們誰飯量都不大。

                          They neither of them wanted to go. 他們兩人都不想去。

                          They"ve neither of them succeeded in winning her confidence. 他們兩人誰也沒能贏得她的信任。

                          【注】同位語并不影響其后句子謂語的數,如:

                          學生每人都有一本詞典。

                          正:The students each have a dictionary.

                          誤:The students each has a dictionary.

                          請比較下面一句(謂語用了單數,因為each為句子主語):

                          正:Each of the students has a dictionary.

                          6. 從句用作同位語(即同位語從句)

                          They were worried over the fact that you were sick. 他們為你生病發愁。

                          I received a message that she would be late. 我得到的信息說她可能晚到。

                          The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true. 明天放假的消息不實。

                          The idea that you can do this work without thinking is wrong. 你可以不動腦筋做此工作的想法是錯誤的。

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